NOM is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. Migration flows impact on issues such as Australia’s labour supply; national income; housing availability; cultural diversity; and social cohesion. Variations in the volume and characteristics of travellers to and from Australia impact on policy decisions and future planning at all levels of government.
NOM is ‘based on an international travellers’ duration of stay being in or out of Australia for 12 months or more over the 16 month period (12/16 month rule), and is the difference between:
- the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more within 16 months, who are not currently counted within the population, and are then added to the population (NOM arrivals)
- the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long-term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more within 16 months, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population (NOM departures).
This ‘12/16 month rule’ means all short term movements (such as less than 12 in 16 months) do not count as either NOM arrivals or NOM departures. It also means that people who are not permanent residents of Australia can be counted as NOM arrivals, even if they leave Australia briefly (however many times they want) so long as their time in Australia adds up to at least 12 months within a 16 month window. It therefore includes permanent and temporary migrants, as well as New Zealand and Australian citizens.